活隱喻.活博物館:
朝向六燃「新竹生博物館」之路
Living Metaphor.Living Museum: From the Imperial Japanese Navy’s Sixth Fuel Factory to the Hsinchu Living Museum

文——賴雯淑
國立交通大學 應用藝術研究所 副教授 / 六燃計畫總主持人
By Wen-Shu Lai, Associate Professor, Chief Project Director
Institute of Applied Arts, National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan

|本文轉載自中央大學 漫遊藝術史 部落格|


一座沒有記憶與歷史的二戰城市將成為患有失憶症的城市;一座二戰城市需要一群具反思、批判和實踐能力的市民來保存、活化、滋養她。

在文資團體、社運前輩們多年努力的基礎上,筆者有幸執行新竹文化局所委託的「大煙囪廠房基地保溫睦鄰駐站計畫」(2018/6~2020/2),故趁此時機進一步集結眾人之力與智慧,希冀能催生出以六燃大煙囪廠房為基地的「新竹生博物館」之建置。[1]

It’s thanks to the years of endeavor undertaken by cultural organizations and social movement pioneers that I can carry out the project of “The Good Neighborliness Residency Project at the Big Chimney Factory Base” (June 2018 – February 2020) commissioned by the Cultural Affairs Bureau, Hsinchu City Government. Seizing this golden opportunity, I plan to take a step further, that is, to channel collective labor and wisdom to repurpose the former Japanese Navy’s Sixth Fuel Factory for the Hsinchu Living Museum [1]

圖1_大煙囪
【圖 1】 新竹六燃大煙囪廠房現況。(圖為交大六燃團隊提供)

日本海軍第六燃料廠新竹支廠(簡稱新竹六燃)的大煙囪是新竹六燃二戰工業建築遺構空間上,也是精神上的地標。【圖1】它跨越時空,經歷二戰、國共內戰、冷戰;不同時期的人們都在這個空間裡留下了痕跡,來自各省各地的眷戶共生在一起。這個空間,曾經是生產空間:先是戰爭工業燃料的生產,後是眷村媽媽們的家庭手工業生產,眷村孩子和父母在這裡生活了一輩子,未來的城市生活也會融入進來;而霜毛蝙蝠從遙遠的北方每年飛回來大煙囪生產育幼,是生態也是生產。這裡是結合了「生產、生活、生態」的「共生」園區,它不僅是新竹城市等級的文化資產,更是世界級的二戰文化資產。[2]

The Big Chimney of the former Japanese Navy’s Sixth Fuel Factory, Hsinchu branch (Fig. 1) has been recognized as the architectural and spiritual landmark of this WWII industrial relic. It had weathered the storms of history and survived three major conflicts—the Second World War, the Chinese Civil War, and the Cold War. Indelible traces are left of how the dwellers in different periods lived here. Their spirits transcend the confines of space-time and overlap one another. This place had been reoccupied for military family housing to accommodate the immigrants from Mainland China, and also used for production, firstly a fuel factory for the war machine, followed by the family factories run by military dependents.
The military dependents and their children spent their lifetime here, a place to incorporate the urban lifestyle. Asian particolored bats (Vespertilio sinensis) come here every April for giving birth babies in the Big Chimney, which implies production as well as ecological sustainability. Apart from being a world-class WWII historic site, this place is also an important conservation area for the symbiosis of production, livelihood and ecology. [2]

圖2_abcd四區
【圖 2】 新竹六燃日本海軍燃料廠新竹支廠空照圖,可分為A、B、C、D四大區。(圖為趙家麟提供)

在地理空間上,「新竹生博物館」最主要是針對A區大煙囪廠房區來進行推展,因考量其腹地寬廣,有大煙囪作為顯著地標與特色,建物空間與配置適合朝博物館的方向來規劃。【圖2】但A、B、C、D四區地理位置十分相近,且彼此關係緊密,若能作全盤的規劃設計將是最好的。清華大學在台復校時的第一筆校地即是利用政府撥用自新竹六燃的土地;交通大學緊鄰在清華大學旁,部分教師宿舍也是在原新竹六燃範圍內。【圖3】這兩所大學其實都跟此二戰工業遺構相連,在科技、人文、歷史與地理上皆有高度的關聯性,就善盡大學社會責任而言,兩校對六燃的保存與活化都責無旁貸,希冀兩校能與長期關注六燃保存議題的中原大學、新竹NGO在地團體一起努力,協助新竹市政府逐步完成保存與活化的工作。陸續透過國際學術發表[3]、舉辦各類相關工作坊[4]、文件展[5]和國際藝術展演[6]等合作與交流活動,讓在地與國際社會看到台灣為新竹六燃所付出的努力與成果。

In terms of its geography, the project of Hsinchu Living Museum is primarily intended to revitalize the area A (Fig. 2), given its relatively spacious hinterland and the landmark of Big Chimney as an eye-catching feature. In addition, the building and its spatial configuration are quite suitable for the planning of a museum. Since the areas A, B, C, and D are geographically and functionally close to one another, it will be optimal to have a comprehensive planning and design regarding all these areas. The National Tsing Hua University (NTHU) now stands completely in the hinterland of the former Japanese Navy’s Sixth Fuel Factory. The National Chiao Tung University (NCTU) is adjacent to the NTHU. Part of the NCTU’s faculty dormitory is located in the WWII industrial relic covering an area of 330 hectares (Fig. 3). Both connected to the WWII industrial relic, the two universities are inextricably woven with each other in terms of technology, culture, history, and geography. As a result, preserving and revitalizing this historic site have been their unshrinkable responsibilities to the society. By virtue of international academic presentations, [3] workshops, [4] document exhibitions, [5] and art performances, [6] the two universities are expected to collaborate with the Chung Yuan Christian University and local NGOs in Hsinchu and assist the Cultural Affairs Bureau, Hsinchu City Government in accomplishing the missions of preserving and revitalizing the former Japanese Navy’s Sixth Fuel Factory step by step, thereby showing the local community and the international society how Taiwan has endeavored to reutilize the Japanese Navy’s Sixth Fuel Factory in its sui generis way.

圖3_清交六燃地理關係
【圖 3】交大、清大與新竹六燃大煙囪廠房的相對地理位置關係圖。(圖為趙家麟提供)

錢乃瑜指出:「大煙囪,是二戰時期遺留下來的軍廠遺址,不論從工業技術史、空間獨特性、台灣歷史性觀之,都具有國際級的文化資產潛力。….在這一波文創活化的風潮之中,六燃大煙囪空間的獨特性和歷史性上皆具國際水準,是否能做出新的活化典範,為台灣再次打造出一棟亮眼的文化資產,或者只是淪為僵化保守的文化園區複製品呢?」[7]筆者也認同六燃工業建築遺構成為新的活化典範,故於執行保溫睦鄰駐站計畫之際,同時也提出六燃「新竹生博館」的概念與規劃,意圖以大煙囪廠房基地為實踐場域,催生出「新竹生博物館」。「新竹生博物館」的構想即是從保存與活化出發,希冀能讓此博物館是一座活生生的,與生命、生活、生態、生產充分鏈結的博物館,故取名為「新竹生博物館」。

Nai-Yu Chien pointed out that “the big chimney is a WWII military factory relic that has the potential to become a world-class cultural asset in terms of its industrial and technological history, spatial uniqueness, and historical significance to Taiwan. […] Swept along on the wave of cultural and creative activities, the big chimney of the former Japanese Navy’s Sixth Fuel Factory possesses internationally recognized uniqueness and historicity. Will it become an eye-catching cultural asset and thus serve as a new paradigm of cultural revitalization? Or, will it be reduced to a rigid and conservative replica of a cultural park?” [7] I believe that this historic site has the potential to become a new paradigm of cultural revitalization.
Apart from carrying out the residency program there, I ergo conceived and planned the Hsinchu Living Museum, aiming to incubate a physical museum on the site of the big chimney factory. Taking its preservation and revitalization as the point of departure, I not only focus on preserving the historical memories and revitalizing this historic site, but also seek to establish a “living” museum that manifests itself as a dense network of lives, livelihood, ecology and production, which is why I name it the Hsinchu Living Museum.

一般而言,所謂的生博物館──Living Museum要旨是重現已經不再的歷史背景、生活境況;複製過去的時期、文物、生活。然而,「新竹生博物館」想實現的,並非僅是在博物館中瀏覽閱讀、重溫六燃檔案資料或物件,而是重啓多方的歷史書寫、對話與互動,藉此活化當時的人事物,讓他們跟我們共存於當下、理解彼此,透過行動、反思產生新的詮釋與意義。歷史是活生生的、動態的、在場的、參與的,是不斷向前挺進的滾輪,是以人為軸心的物質性與精神性的生產。正如德國科隆的二戰教堂遺址轉化成柯倫巴藝術博物館(KOLUMBA- Art museum of the Archdiocese of Cologne)的案例,就是新舊共生並存的「活博物館」[8]:新建築體與科倫巴於二戰期間被摧毀的羅馬式教堂和戰後建構的水泥天然砌磚石,和諧地融為一體。如此,柯倫巴博物館的新建築成為歷史建築的連續體,疊合模糊的邊界成為它的一部分,展現出開放和無限的格局,充分體現「活博物館」的精神。

Generally speaking, a so-called “living museum” 8 is about representing bygone milieus, artifacts and lifestyle. However, the objective of the Hsinchu Living Museum is not so much to allow the visitors to relive past experiences by browsing historical archives as to restart multi-directional dialogues, insofar as to enable the past figures, events and objects to co-exist with us in the contemporary world, and thus we can understand them by means of actions and reflections that offer refreshing interpretations and meanings. History is living, dynamic, present and engaging. It is a wheel constantly spinning forward, a production as material as spiritual revolving around humankind. That the WWII relic of the former St. Columba church in Köln was repurposed for the Kolumba Art Museum is a clear manifestation of “living museum” [8]featuring the symbiosis of old and new. This Romanesque church was wrecked in the war calamity. The museum’s architecture is characterized by the perfect fusion of the church’s relic and the new cement bricks added in the postwar era. In this way, the museum nowadays becomes a continuum of the historical church. They are part of each other as their boundaries are blurred, unfolding a layout that knows no bounds and embodying the genuine spirit of “living museum.”

此外,如在日本的犬島精煉所美術館(Inujima Seirensho Art Museum),其前身銅精煉所在1919年時沒落,2008年轉身為美術館,以「現代化工業遺址」的身份結合水質淨化系統,再度出現在世人面前。它結合自然環境的能源再生概念,將美術館自身也納入自然循環的一環,在園區內栽種符合犬島環境的植栽,並透過這些植物高度與水質淨化系統結合,以最接近環境的位置在這座小小的島嶼與土地繼續共存。

Besides, the predecessor of the Inujima Seirensho Art Museum was a copper refinery in Japan. Suffering gradual decline since 1919, the refinery was eventually transmuted into an art museum in 2008, reborn as a “modernized industrial relic” combined with a wastewater treatment system. Incorporating the concepts of environmental sustainability and energy regeneration, this museum places itself in the natural ecologic cycle. More specific, covered with native vegetation in tune with Inujima’s natural environment, this museum, along with these plants and the wastewater treatment system, marks an environment-friendly, sustainable design of symbiosis on this tiny island.

圖4_VR發電廠
【圖 4】交大六燃團隊以VR再現二戰時期六燃廠房內的發電機廠房場景。(圖為交大六燃團隊提供)

在構思大煙囪廠房基地的「新竹生博物館」計劃時,筆者立足於博物館的研究、典藏、展示、教育四大功能上,進一步提出「活隱喻,活博物館」[9]的想像與期待,意圖透過一個具生命特質的藝術與生態系統之建置,讓觀眾、參與者能有足夠的空間、資訊與機會去理解、談論和參與過去、現在和未來將在這裡發生的人事物,希望透過眾人的觀點來擴展和豐富台灣的二戰歷史。為此一目標,交大六燃團隊邀請了中原大學和清華大學兩校長期關注六燃議題的學者團隊[10],以交通大學為永續基地,一起推動以人文省思與社會關懷為核心精神、以智慧科技維護在地生態、以藝術實踐介入社會為理念的六燃「新竹生博物館」。【圖4】【圖5】

As I was conceiving to repurpose the big chimney factory for the Hsinchu Living Museum, I further proposed my vision of “living metaphor, [9] living museum” on the basis of the four major functions of an art museum (i.e. research, collection, exhibition and education). By constructing such an organic system of art and ecology, I expect not only to afford the visitors and participants sufficient space, information and opportunities for grasping, discussing and experiencing the figures, events and objects existing in the past, present and future, but also to expand and enrich our horizons about the WWII history in Taiwan. To achieve this objective, the project team from the NCTU works in close collaboration with the local groups as well as the professors and students from the NTHU and the Chung Yuan Christian University [10] who have paid long-term efforts to the issues concerning this historic site. Harnessing the NCTU as sustainable base, we begin the meticulous preparations for the “Hsinchu Living Museum,” an establishment that treats humanistic rumination and social concern as its guiding spirit, smart technology and ecological protection as its approach, and intervening the society with artistic practice (Fig. 4 and 5) as its underlying philosophy.

圖5_投影
【圖 5】交大六燃團隊於大煙囪廠房內進行歷史蒙太奇影像投影。(圖為交大六燃團隊提供)

法國哲學家李克爾(Paul Ricoeur,1913-2005)提出「語義的空缺」(semantic lacuna):「『空隙』(lacuna)指的是『原來事件』與『隱喻辭』中的缺口,用一件事物隱喻另一件事物,兩件事物之間會有意義上的缺口,為了填補這個缺口,作者自己必須填入新意義。空隙中所填入的使原有的『結構鬆動』或『界域模糊』,進而促成作品在內容、意義甚至於形式上的轉變或延伸。」[11] 我們解構或再構歷史,轉換書寫的文字或方式,生產出其它可能,企圖尋找前後兩者間的「空隙」與意義的轉折,產生新的理解和詮釋,讓原先所理解的歷史得以延伸或再生產,在碎片撿拾、歷史再寫、記憶重構的過程中,靈光得以再現。易言之,參與者不論以何種方式來參與或被參與,皆會建構出日據殖民、二戰、國共內戰、冷戰歷史和大煙囪記憶的另一個維度。[12]如此一來,歷史書寫是一種有機的,不斷發展的進程,隨著話語權的多元、開放、轉移,可以始終處於現在進行式。

每年飛來六燃大煙囪產子育兒的保育類霜毛母蝙蝠,它們也是這裡的生態住民,與大煙囪廠房和附近住家共生共存,一同參與了彼此的生命史。我們的話語、創作實踐和各種行動,有朝一日都將成為這一座落在新竹日本海軍第六燃料廠二戰工業建築遺構上「活博物館」的「活隱喻」,各種樣態的生命體與故事將不斷地開展、延續,啟發我們對六燃的過去、現在和未來的想像。「新竹生博物館」將具有活水般的生命特質,在她的滋養下,我們將孕育出新竹市民所期待的「生活、生命、共生、共創、共好、共融」六燃歷史文化園區。

Just like the concept of “semantic lacuna” 11 formulated by French philosopher Paul Ricoeur (1913-2005), we deconstruct and reconstruct history, change the words or the way of writing, thereby producing other extensions or possibilities. We attempt to explore the “lacuna” between the event and its metaphor as well as the concomitant change of meanings, so as to generate new understanding and interpretation that enable us to extend or reproduce our original understanding of history. The aura resurges in the process of fragments collection, history rewriting and memory reconstruction. In other words, participants, quovis modo, will definitely add an extra dimension to the history of Japanese colonial rule, the Second World War, the Chinese Civil War, the Cold War, as well as the memories of the big chimney factory. 12 In addition, historical writing is organic and constantly evolving in the course of the diversification, openness and transfer of discursive power. It is always in progress. Furthermore, the Asian parti-colored bats, a protected species, that come here every year for delivery, stand in a symbiotic relationship to the big chimney and the residents in the immediate vicinity, making themselves part of the community in which the members share a common life history. Sometime in the future, our words, creative practices and actions of all stripes will become living metaphors for the living museum erected on the relic of former Japanese Navy’s Sixth Fuel Factory, Hsinchu branch. Myriads of life forms and stories will be created and perpetuated, serving as the inspiration that keeps the torch of our imagination about this historic site aflame. As vigorous as running water, the Hsinchu Living Museum will nurture and incubate a one-of-a-kind historical and cultural park that lives to the citizens’ expectations for livelihood, symbiosis, co-creation, reciprocity, and harmony of life.


[1]新竹生博物館官網如下:https://hclm.nctu.edu.tw/
The museum’s official website: https://hclm.nctu.edu.tw/

[2]保留新竹六燃大煙囪廠房使其成為文化資產園區之重要性、必要性與急迫性有以下四點:1. 新竹六燃歷史遺址已具文化資產法定地位、2. 為台灣少數僅存二戰時期軍事工業遺跡、3. 具「屋中有屋」與「空中樓閣」特色之重要眷村遺跡、4. 為全台稀有,同時結合戰爭、科技與眷村文化之歷史建築。

It is an imperative to preserve this former fuel factory in Hsinchu and transform it into the “Hsinchu Living Museum,” because this site is (1) registered as a historic building by the Hsinchu City Government in 2010 (2) one of the few remaining WWII military-industrial relics in Taiwan; (3) a historic site of military dependents’ housing characterized by “embedded apartment” and “roofless attic”; and (4) a rare complex preserving the legacies of war, technology, and military dependents’ housing culture.

[3] 筆者與研究生許宜蓁、吳致怡於2018年11月在香港舉行的The Ninth International Conference on The Image,共同發表以六燃大煙囪為主題的“Digital Storytelling As A Hybrid Of Visuals, Sounds And Temporality”相關報告。

The author, together with graduate students Yi-Chen Hsu and Chih-Yi Wu, co-authored the paper titled “Digital Storytelling as a Hybrid of Visuals, Sounds and Temporality” featuring the big chimney of the former Japanese Navy’s Sixth Fuel Factory, and presented it at the Ninth International Conference on the Image held in Hong Kong on 3 and 4 November 2018.

[4] 目前已經由中原大學趙家麟教授研究團隊規劃四場霜毛蝙蝠保育工作坊,相關訊息請見霜毛蝠工作坊粉絲專頁:https://www.facebook.com/%E9%9C%9C%E6%AF%9B%E8%9D%A0%E5%B7%A5%E4%BD%9C%E5%9D%8A-383570862413116/

A research team led by Prof. Chia-Lin Tsao from the Chung Yuan Christian University is planning four workshops on the conservation of Asian parti-colored bats (Vespertilio sinensis), for further information please visit:
https://www.facebook.com/%E9%9C%9C%E6%AF%9B%E8%9D%A0%E5%B7%A5%E4%BD%9C%E5%9D%8A-383570862413116/

[5]《六燃文件展》將於2019年6月6日至7月9日在交通大學藝文中心展出。將由文化部、教育部指導,新竹市政府文化局、國立交通大學主辦。

Instructed by the Ministry of Culture and the Ministry of Education, and co-organized by the Cultural Affairs Bureau and the NCTU, the document exhibition on the former Japanese Navy’s Sixth Fuel Factory will be on view from 6 June to 9 July 2019.

[6]《六燃國際藝術展演》預計於2019年11月初於六燃大煙囪廠房基地舉行,將邀請國內外藝術家進行展演活動。活動由文化部、教育部指導;新竹市政府文化局、國立交通大學主辦。

The International Exhibition and Performance on the former Japanese Navy’s Sixth Fuel Factory is scheduled to take place at the big chimney factory in early November 2019, which will invite artists from Taiwan and abroad to present their works or deliver their performances. This event is also instructed by the Ministry of Culture and the Ministry of Education, and co-organized by the Cultural Affairs Bureau and the NCTU.

[7] 錢乃瑜,〈六燃大煙囪的未來──當國際級文化資產落在新竹市……〉,2016年3月19日。獨立評論@天下:https://opinion.cw.com.tw/blog/ profile/52/article/4025

Nai-Yu Chien, “The future of the big chimney of the former Japanese Navy’s Sixth Fuel Factory: When Hsinchu City has a world-class cultural asset.” Opinions@commonwealth. Full text available at https://opinion.cw.com.tw/blog/ profile/52/article/4025, retrieved on 19 March 2016.

[8] 一般而言,生活博物館是一個博物館,它重現歷史背景的各種擺設以複製過去的時期。Elizabeth Murigi, What Is A Living Museum?, February 19, 2018. Worldatlas: https://www.worldatlas.com/articles/what-is-a-living-museum.html

A living museum or a living history museum is a museum that recreates historical settings to replicate past time periods. See
https://www.worldatlas.com/articles/what-is-a-living-museum.html, retrieved on 23 Sep. 2018.

[9] 有關「活隱喻」的概念,請見Karl Simms, Paul Ricoeur : Routledge Critical Thinkers (London and New York: Routledge, 2003).

K. Simms, Paul Ricoeur. London and New York: Routledge Critical Thinkers, 2003.

[10] 學者團隊為中原大學城鄉規劃設計中心主任趙家麟教授,以及清華大學人文社會學院副院長王俊秀教授。

They are professor Chia-Lin Tsao, Director of Urban and Town Planning and Design, Chung-Yuan Christian University, and professor Juju Chin-Shou Wang, Vice Dean of College of Humanities and Social Sciences, National Tsing Hua University.

[11] Karl Simms, Paul Ricoeur : Routledge Critical Thinkers (London and New York: Routledge, 2003).

另參見賴雯淑,〈威廉・肯胥居「Drawings for Projection」之美學脈絡〉,《國際藝術教育學刊》2期 (2008,12),頁8-43。

A semantic lacuna is the gap between an original event and its metaphor. There will be a semantic lacuna if one uses an event as the metaphor for another. A semantic lacuna is therefore a gap in a sentence that the author wishes to fill. The deviant word filled makes the structure of the sentence loose or the boundary blurry. As a result, the content, meaning or even the form changes or extends. See Simms, 2003; Wen-Shu Lai, “Aesthetics in William Kentridge’s ‘Drawings for Projection’,” The International Journal of Arts Education 6:2 (Dec. 2018), pp. 8-43.

[12] 例如在2018年交大六燃團隊完成以3D動畫再現六燃大煙囪廠房的部分樣貌。動畫影片連結如下:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=td5uUOkWcBc

For example, part of the big chimney factory was represented in the form of 3D animation by the NCTU team for the project of “Hsinchu Living Museum” in 2018. The 3D animation is available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=td5uUOkWcBc.